Models for Fracture during Deformation Processing
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In very broad terms, modeling of fracture during deformation processes has been a major focal point for production engineers since cracking first occurred as a source of scrap in manufacturing. G. Sachs, in his 1954 compilation of articles in Fundamentals of the Working of Metals, pointed out that Â Two characteristics of any metal or alloy are of particular interest to the engineer engaged in the working of metals. The one is the ability of the metal to withstand permanent or plastic changes in shape or deformations, and it is called ductility. . . The other metal property of interest to the processing engineer is the resistance of the metal to deformation. . . For any given material to be processed, both the ductility and the deformation resistance may differ with the variables of processing within very wide limits.Â In other words, it was recognized early on that the plastic deformation and fracture behavior of materials were functions not only of the material but the processing conditions as well. Five references to 6061.